/proc/buddyinfo: Explanation & Insights

Contains information about the free and used pages

The /proc/buddyinfo file provides insight into the memory management system of the kernel. It contains detailed information about the memory blocks (buddies) that the kernel uses to allocate memory to processes.

Why is /proc/buddyinfo Important?

Understanding the /proc/buddyinfo file is crucial for diagnosing issues related to memory fragmentation. Excessive fragmentation can lead to inefficient use of memory, causing a performance slowdown, and in severe cases, can lead to out-of-memory (OOM) conditions even when memory seems to be available. Keeping an eye on the /proc/buddyinfo file can help you spot early signs of memory fragmentation and take corrective action.

What Does /proc/buddyinfo Contain?

The /proc/buddyinfo file contains a list of free chunks of memory, organized by size and node. Each line of the file represents a particular node and zone, followed by the number of free chunks of each size.

Node 0, zone      DMA      3      1      2      1      2      1      0      1      1      3 
Node 0, zone    DMA32   1670   1263    822    378    162     66     22     11      4      1 
Node 0, zone   Normal   3195   1878   1020    478    203     98     36     10      4      0 

The numbers represent the number of free chunks of each size, starting from smallest to largest.

How to Use /proc/buddyinfo?

To view the contents of the /proc/buddyinfo file, you can use the cat command in the shell:

cat /proc/buddyinfo

This will display the contents of the file in your terminal.

Diagnosing Problems with /proc/buddyinfo

If you notice that the numbers for smaller-sized chunks are high while the numbers for larger-sized chunks are low, it could indicate that your system is suffering from memory fragmentation. This can cause problems like high load as the system struggles to find contiguous chunks of memory to allocate to processes.


Understanding the /proc/buddyinfo file is like learning a new language. Once you've mastered it, you'll be able to diagnose and troubleshoot memory fragmentation issues in your Linux server. So the next time your server is acting up, don't forget to take a peek at the /proc/buddyinfo file. It might just have the answers you're looking for.

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