VNC Explained

A remote desktop protocol

Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a remote desktop protocol that allows you to access and control a graphical desktop environment on a remote server or virtual machine (VM). It enables users to interact with the server as if they were physically present at the machine, providing a graphical interface even for systems without a desktop environment.

How it Works

VNC operates by transmitting keyboard and mouse events from the client to the server and sending screen updates from the server to the client. This way, users can visualize the desktop of the remote machine and interact with it in real-time. VNC is particularly valuable in server environments where a graphical interface is needed for tasks like configuring applications or troubleshooting.


VNC is crucial for server administration, especially when servers are deployed in headless mode without a local monitor or keyboard. It allows system administrators to manage servers efficiently without the need for physical access, reducing operational costs and facilitating remote collaboration.

Setting Up VNC

Installing VNC Server

To set up VNC on your Linux server, you'll need to install a VNC server software. Common choices include TigerVNC, RealVNC, or TightVNC. Use the package manager of your distribution to install the chosen VNC server.

# Example command for installing TigerVNC
sudo apt install tigervnc-server

Configuring VNC

After installation, configuration is necessary to define the desktop environment and display settings. This typically involves editing configuration files such as /etc/vnc.conf or similar. Ensure that the VNC server is started automatically upon system boot.

Connecting to VNC

On the client side, you need a VNC viewer application. Examples include Remmina, TigerVNC Viewer, or RealVNC Viewer. Enter the IP address or hostname of the server, along with the display number (e.g., :1), to establish a connection.

Common Issues

Authentication Problems

Ensure that you have set up VNC server authentication properly. This may involve creating VNC user passwords or configuring system users to have VNC access.

Firewall Configuration

Firewalls may block VNC traffic. Adjust firewall rules to permit connections on the VNC port (default is 5901 for display :1).

Display Configuration

Mismatched display configurations between server and client can lead to connection issues. Verify that the display settings are consistent on both ends.


VNC is a powerful tool for managing Linux servers remotely, providing a graphical interface for tasks that require it. By understanding its principles, setting it up correctly, and troubleshooting common issues, you can leverage VNC to streamline server administration and enhance your overall Linux experience.

Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license CC BY SA